Hollow Plastic Parts: Design and Manufacturing

Glenn Beall and James L. Throne, © 2004

Hollow Plastic Parts

Hollow Plastic Parts

Hollow plastic parts range in size from small unit dose liquor bottles, doll heads, and syringe bulbs to large gasoline tanks, pallets, and playground equipment. Designers and design engineers are often familiar with one way of making these parts but may not be aware of other methods that may offer greater design and performance flexibility.

The book provides comprehensive design and manufacturing comparisons of three major methods – blow molding, rotational molding and twin-sheet thermoforming- as well as an overview of other methods used to produce hollow plastic parts. Not only will the seasoned designer of hollow parts be able to determine the advantages and limitations of specific technologies, but the text material will allow the newcomer to quickly select the best methodology for his particular hollow product.

The contents are

  • Introduction
  • Major Hollow Parts Manufacturing Processes
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Mold Design Considerations
  • Part Design Considerations
  • Other Hollow Parts Manufacturing Processes
  • Hollow Parts by Assembly
Hanser/Gardner Publications, Inc.
6915 Valley Avenue
Cincinnati, OH 45244-3029
ISBN: 1-56990-368-9

$80 for SPE members, $92 otherwise

Hollow Plastic Parts: Design and Manufacture

James L. Throne, copyright 2007

This is the Chinese translation of the 2004 book by these authors. It is in paperback.

Hanser/Gardner Publications, Inc.
6915 Valley Avenue
Cincinnati, OH 45244-3029
ISBN: 1-56990-368-9

Thermoplastic Foam Extrusion, An Introduction

James L. Throne © 2004

Thermoplastic Foam Extrusion

Thermoplastic Foam Extrusion

This unique introduction covers both low- and high-density thermoplastic foams in an easy-to-follow style that avoids excursions into the theoretical aspects of foam processing.

The book provides information on materials and their properties and on all major foam extrusion processes. A considerable part of the volume is taken up by comprehensive troubleshooting guides, designed to help newcomers as well as seasoned practitioners navigate the pitfalls of foam extrusion.

The contents are

  • Introduction
  • Foam materials
  • Flow characteristics of foamable polymers
  • The foaming process
  • Extrusion equipment
  • Processing variants
  • Mechanical design of foams
  • Troubleshooting guides
  • Glossary of foam terms
Hanser/Gardner Publications, Inc.
6915 Valley Avenue
Cincinnati, OH 45244-3029
ISBN 1-56990-360-3

$62 SPE Members, $72 Others

Rotational Molding Technology

R.G. Crawford and J.L. Throne © 2002

Rotational Molding Technology

Rotational Molding Technology

This is the first monograph devoted to the technical aspects of this rapidly growing polymer process. This new book clarifies and quantifies many of the technical interactions in the process. It distinguishes itself from other books on the subject by being a seamless story of the advanced aspects of the rotational molding process. There are seven chapters within the book. The US market for rotational molding products was one billion pounds in the year 2000. The growth of the rotational molding industry has grown at 10 to 15% per year. With this growth has come an increasing need for details on the complex, technical aspects of the process.

The authors are leaders in the field. Dr. Roy Crawford is the Director of the Rotational Molding Centre at Queen’s University, Belfast Ireland, and Technical Director of Association of Rotational Molders. Jim Throne published some of the earliest papers on the technical aspects of polymer powder consolidation and fusion in rotational molding.

450 pages, © 2002 Plastics Design Library

William Andrew Publishing
13 Eaton Avenue, Norwich, NY 13815
ISBN: 1-884207-85-5

$175

Understanding Thermoforming

James L .Throne, Hanser/Gardner Publications, 1999

Understanding Thermoforming

Understanding Thermoforming

This is a short monograph in the Hanser “Understanding…” Series. The paperback book is 142 pages long, with a glossary of thermoforming terms and an index.

The contents are:

  • Introduction to Thermoforming
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • General Forming Concepts
  • Machinery for the Forming Process
  • Thin-Gauge, Roll-Fed Machines
  • Heavy-Gauge Sheet Forming
  • Methods of Heating Sheet
  • Sheet Stretching and Cooling
  • Trimming
  • Molds and Mold Design
  • Part Design
  • Quality Control Issues
  • Set-Up, Maintenance, and Troubleshooting

This book was written for readers who are not yet familiar with thermoforming techniques and technology. Formal technical background is not required! There are no equations!

Hanser/Garner Publications, Inc.
6600 Clough Pike
Cincinnati OH 45244-4090
ISBN 1-56990-276-3

$37 SPE Members, $42 Others

Note that this book will be extensively and extended in 2007.

Thermoformen: Werkstoffe, Verfahren, Anwendung

J.L. Throne and J. Beine, Hanser Verlag, 1999

Thermoformen

Thermoformen

After the publication of Technology of Thermoforming [see below], Hanser was contacted by a German federation of thermoformers who requested that the book be translated into German. Dipl.-Ing. Beine, together with Dr. Michael Heil, undertook the task, including substantial information about German thermoforming practices and excluding typical US practices. The book is, of course, in German.

Carl Hanser Verlag
Postfach 86 04 20
81631 Munchen Germany
ISBN 3-446-17812-0

About 79€ (in Germany), 81.30€ (Elsewhere)
[Not available in the US]

Understanding Thermoforming, 2nd Edition

James L. Throne, copyright 2008

Understanding Thermoforming Second Edition

Understanding Thermoforming Second Edition

This is a completely revised and expanded edition of the first edition, in flex back. The rapid growth of the thermoforming industry has attracted the interest of many plastic product manufacturers who previously would have considered this process as competition to their currently used manufacturing method such as injection or blow molding.

Modern thermoforming practice is a balance of practical experience and the application of engineering principles. This very practical book introduces the process, its tools and machinery, and the commonly used materials to novices and practicing engineers alike.

Contents:

  • General Forming Concepts
  • Part Design
  • Machinery for the Thick-Gauge Forming Process
  • Machinery for the Thin-Gauge Forming Process
  • Machines for Other Applications
  • Molds and Mold Design
  • Methods of Heating Sheet
  • Sheet Stretching and Cooling
  • Trimming
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Quality Control
  • Comparison with other Technologies
  • Pragmatic Aspects of Thermoforming

ISBN 978-1-56990-428-2
Hanser Gardner Publications
www.hansergardner.com

ISBN 978-3-446-40796-1
Carl Hanser Verlag
www.hanser.de

Thermoplastic Foams

James L. Throne, Sherwood Publishers, 1996

This most thorough and up-to-date volume examines the technical and practical aspects of thermoplastic foams of all densities. This material allows scientists and engineers to successfully exploit the potential of thermoplastic foams for insulation, impact mitigation, high stiffness-to-weight ratios, high buoyancy, structural applications, and other commercially valuable functions.

Abundant illustrations and help tables make this book a convenient, on-the-job reference. This 8×10 hardcover book has 11 chapters, nearly 700 pages, more than 750 citations, more than 400 figures, and more than 130 tables.

The book is currently out of print.

Technology of Thermoforming

James L. Throne, Sherwood Publishers, 1996

Technology of Thermoforming

Technology of Thermoforming

Modern thermoforming practice requires a balance between practical experience and the application of engineering and computational principles. This book offers an overview of all technical aspects of thermoforming. It is a revision and extension of the author’s 1987 monograph, Thermoforming. The material in each chapter moves from relatively simple concepts to more technical in-depth considerations. There are many worked-out examples and guidelines to illustrate and support the technical aspects. 882 pages, 524 figures, 667 references.

The contents are

  • Thermoforming – Definitions, History, Methods and Equipment,
  • Polymeric Materials,
  • Heating the Sheet,
  • Stretching the Sheet,
  • Cooling and Trimming the Part,
  • Thermoforming Molds,
  • Parts Design,
  • Producing Sheet and Film,
  • Newer Thermoforming Technologies,
  • and Set-Up Protocols, Troubleshooting, and the Economics of Thermoforming
Hanser/Gardner Publications, Inc.
6600 Clough Pike
Cincinnati, OH 45244-4090
ISBN 1-56990-198-8
$181 SPE Members, $203 Others

Technical Articles and Papers

James L. Throne and Peter J. Mooney, “Thermoforming: Growth and Evolution,” Popular Plastics & Packaging, 50:11, Nov 2005, pp. 113-120. [This article was also published in two parts in Thermoforming Quarterly (TFQ 24:1, Spring 2005, and TFQ 24:2, Summer 2005).

James L. Throne, “Fabrication Processes,” Chapter 15, in C.E. Wilkes, J.W. Summers, and C.A. Daniels, Eds., PVC Handbook, Hanser Publishers, Munich, 2005, pp. 512-600.

J.L. Throne and C. Rauwendaal, “Extrusion Parameters Affecting Thermoformability of Low-Density Thermoplastic Foam Sheet,” invited keynote paper scheduled for presentation at Thermoforming Division Session, 2006 SPE ANTEC, May 2006, Charlotte NC.

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